- Area around the Nile settled due to overgrazing and weather changes which led to the creation of the Sahara desert.
- 4000 BC: Use of tomb building and burial rituals started.
- 3500 BC: Hieroglyphic writing developed.
|3200 - 3000 BC
- Thinis, one of three states of Upper Egypt, takes over Naqada and Nekhen (other two of three states), as well as the whole of Lower Egypt.
- Unified Egypt created.
|2950 - 2575 BC
||Early Dynastic Period
(1st - 2nd dynasties)
- Capital of Egypt built in Memphis.
- First king of unified Egypt believed to be Menes, Narmer, or Hor-aha.
|2575 - 2150 BC
(3rd - 6th dynasties)
- 2600 BC: Pyramid of Djoser built, first known large-scale stone building.
- Menkaure's Pyramid built, earliest use of carved granite.
- Red Pyramid, first smooth-sided pyramid.
- 2580 BC: Great Pyramid of Giza built. Tallest structure until 1300 AD.
- Art of embalming started.
|2125 - 1975 BC
||1st Intermediate Period
(7th - 11th dynasties)
- Unification of Egypt fell apart.
- Weather changes stopped the flooding of the Nile, caused many years of famine.
|1975 - 1640 BC
(12th - 13th dynasties)
- 2055 BC: Mentuhotep II reunited Egypt.
- 1878 BC: Senusret III attempts to extend Egypt, begins military campaigns to Nubia.
- Under Amenemhat III's 45 year reign, the Valley of the Kings was used.
|1630 - 1520 BC
||2nd Intermediate Period
(14th - 17th dynasties)
- Egypt once again no longer unified at the start of the 14th Dynasty (Hyksos kings rule in the North).
- 17th Dynasty reunites Egypt and defeats the Hyksos from Western Asia.
|1539 - 1075 BC
(18th - 20th dynasties)
- Reign of Hatshepsut, first female pharaoh.
- Reign of Akhenaten.
Built a new capital called Akhetaten.
- Formed new monotheistic religion based around the sun disk, Aten.
Banned worship of old gods.
- Reign of Horemheb, focused on re-establishing the Egypt that existed before Akhenaten.
- Valley of Queens made, though some wives were still buried with their husbands.
- Reign of Ramses II, ruled for 67 years and had numerous temples built, such as Abu Simbel.
- 1258 BC: World's earliest known peace treaty created.
|1075 - 715 BC
||3rd Intermediate Period
(21st - 25th dynasties)
- Egypt once again split into two separate areas, Upper and Lower.
|715 - 332 BC
(26th - 31st dynasties)
- 525 BC: Egypt conquered by the Persians.
- 404 BC: Independent again.
|332 BC - 395 AD
- Alexander the Great invades Egypt; is eventually declared Pharaoh.
- Alexandria built.
- 304 BC - 30 BC: Descendants of Ptolemy I, Alexander's general, rule Egypt while maintaining Egyptian style of rule.
- 229 B: Library of Alexandria founded.
- 146 BC: Rosetta Stone cut.
- 30 BC: Roman conquest of Egypt, Egypt restored to its prior wealth and prestige as a trade center.
- 42 AD: Library of Alexandria burns, loses 40,000 of its 70,000 books and manuscripts in the blaze.
- 212 AD: Egyptians given Roman Citizenship.
- 300 AD: Rise of Christianity in Egypt.
|640 AD - Present
- 640 AD: Egypt conquered by Arab forces, becomes Islamic after 300 years of Christianity.
- 1799 AD: Rosetta Stone found by Napoleon's soldiers.
- 1822 AD: Rosetta Stone deciphered.
- 1870 AD: mummy caches found.
- 19th Century: Valley of the Kings found.
- 1922 AD: Tutankhamun's tomb found by Howard Carter.